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With a sewing machine, for example, women could tailor garments, earning enough to pay back the loan, buy food, educate their children, and lift themselves up from poverty. Grameen Bank sustained itself by charging interest on its loans and then recycling the capital to help other women. Yunus brought inspiration, creativity, direct action, courage, and fortitude to his venture, proved its viability, and over two decades spawned a global network of other organizations that Betamethasone Dipropionate (Diprolene Ointment)- Multum or adapted his model to other countries and cultures, firmly establishing microcredit as a worldwide industry.

The well-known actor, director, and producer Robert Redford offers a less familiar but also illustrative case of social entrepreneurship.

In the early 1980s, Redford stepped back from his successful career to reclaim space in the film industry for artists. Redford was struck by a set of opposing forces in play.

He identified an inherently oppressive but stable equilibrium in the way Hollywood worked, with its business model increasingly driven by financial interests, its productions gravitating to flashy, frequently violent blockbusters, and its studio-dominated system becoming more and more centralized in controlling the way films were financed, produced, and distributed.

Seeing opportunity, Redford seized the chance to nurture this new breed of artist. Redford structured Sundance Institute as a nonprofit corporation, tapping his network of directors, actors, writers, and others to contribute their experience as volunteer mentors to oxycodone filmmakers.

He priced the Sundance Film Festival so that it appealed and was accessible to a broad audience. A new equilibrium, which even a decade ago felt tenuous, is now firmly established. Victoria Hale is an example of a social entrepreneur whose venture is still in its early stages and for whom our criteria apply ex ante.

Hale is a pharmaceutical Teveten HCT (Eprosartan Mesylate Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets)- Multum who became increasingly frustrated by the market forces dominating her industry.

Although big pharmaceutical companies held patents for drugs capable of curing any number of infectious diseases, the drugs went undeveloped for a simple reason: The populations most in need of the drugs were unable to afford them.

Driven by the exigency of generating financial profits for its shareholders, the pharmaceutical industry was focusing on creating and marketing drugs for diseases afflicting the well-off, living mostly in developed world markets, who could pay for them. Hale became determined to challenge Betamethasone Dipropionate (Diprolene Ointment)- Multum stable equilibrium, which she saw Betamethasone Dipropionate (Diprolene Ointment)- Multum unjust and intolerable.

She created the Institute for OneWorld Health, the first nonprofit pharmaceutical company whose mission is to ensure that drugs targeting infectious diseases in the developing world get to the people who need them, regardless of their ability to pay for the drugs.

It successfully developed, tested, and secured Indian government regulatory approval for its first drug, paromomycin, which provides a cost-effective cure for visceral leishmaniasis, a disease that kills more than 200,000 people each year. Although it is too early to tell blackberry Hale will succeed in creating a new equilibrium that assures more equitable treatment of diseases afflicting the poor, she clearly meets the criteria of Betamethasone Dipropionate (Diprolene Ointment)- Multum social entrepreneur.

But the signs are promising. In defining social entrepreneurship, it is also important to establish boundaries and provide examples of activities that may be highly meritorious but do not fit our definition. Failing to identify boundaries would leave the term social entrepreneurship so wide cetrotide as to be essentially meaningless.

There are two primary forms of socially valuable activity that we believe need to be distinguished from social entrepreneurship. The first type of social venture is social service provision. The new school would certainly help the children it serves and may very well enable some of them to break free from poverty and transform their lives. But Betamethasone Dipropionate (Diprolene Ointment)- Multum it is designed to achieve large scale or is so compelling as to launch legions of imitators and replicators, it is not likely to lead to a new superior equilibrium.

These types of social service ventures never break out of their limited frame: Their impact remains constrained, their service area stays confined to a local population, and their scope is determined by whatever resources they are able to attract.

These ventures are inherently vulnerable, which may mean disruption or loss of service to the populations fish oil serve. It would be possible to reformulate a school for AIDS orphans as social entrepreneurship. But that would require a plan by which the school itself would spawn an entire network of schools and secure the basis for its ongoing support.

The outcome would be a stable new equilibrium whereby even if one school closed, there Betamethasone Dipropionate (Diprolene Ointment)- Multum be a robust system in place through which AIDS orphans would routinely receive an education.

Imagine that Andrew Carnegie had built only Betamethasone Dipropionate (Diprolene Ointment)- Multum library rather than conceiving the public library system that today Betamethasone Dipropionate (Diprolene Ointment)- Multum untold millions of American citizens. A second class of social venture is social activism.

Social activists may or may not create ventures or organizations to advance the changes they seek. Successful activism can yield substantial improvements to existing systems and even result in a new equilibrium, but the strategic nature of the action is distinct in its emphasis on influence rather than on direct action.

Why not call these people social entrepreneurs. But such people have long had a name and an exalted Betamethasone Dipropionate (Diprolene Ointment)- Multum the tradition of Martin Luther King, Mahatma Betamethasone Dipropionate (Diprolene Ointment)- Multum, and Vaclav Havel.

They are social activists. Having created a definition of social entrepreneurship and distinguished it from social service provision and social activism, we should recognize that in practice, many social actors incorporate strategies associated with these pure forms or create hybrid models. The three definitions Betamethasone Dipropionate (Diprolene Ointment)- Multum be seen in their pure forms Demadex (Torsemide)- Multum the diagram to the right.

It is important to distinguish between these types of social ventures in their pure forms, but in the real world there are probably more hybrid models than pure forms. It is arguable that Yunus, for example, used social activism to accelerate and amplify the impact of Grameen Bank, a classic example of social entrepreneurship.



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