Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA

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In contrast with farms in developed countries, they often have much stronger links to and interdependence with other farms in the local community than they do with the outside world, i.

Through such practices as exchange of labour and animal services among farms, group farming, community work ('gotong royong' in Indonesia) to develop irrigation channels, village roads etc. Whatever the basis for such informal integration - culture, religion, isolation Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA its effect is to provide strong structural boundaries around groups of farms, hamlets and villages rather than around individual farms.

It might well be said that 'No such farm is an Island, entire unto itself. Type 2 farms are typically the most diverse of all farms. This contrasts Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA with penile fracture situation on Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA of Type 6, the estates producing a single product (tea, rubber etc.

Even a common field crop such as maize may be managed so as to yield four or five primary products (green pick, dry grain, fodder leaves and stalks, fuel, live stripped stalks as supports for a companion bean Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA, and two or three subsequent processed products (maize cakes - an important kitchen industry in parts of Bhutan, alcohol etc. Diversification of Type 1 and 2 farms has several bases.

Broadly it follows from their sustenance orientation. In remote tracts of Nepal and Bhutan it is a necessity. In the Punjab it results largely from the possibility of growing a wide range of summer and winter crops and combining these with livestock. On the closely integrated vegetable-poultry-pig-fish farms of West Malaysia and Sarawak it results from a business-like approach to Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA maximization. Further, where purchased resources are used, Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA is common practice to restrict their use to cash crops (cotton, sugarcane, tobacco etc.

Those farms which do use purchased inputs often operate at dual levels of technology - 'advanced' for some main crop, 'traditional' for the rest. These, Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA distinct from cash-generating activities, Mustargen (Mechlorethamine HCl)- FDA relatively important on farms of Types 1, 2 and 3.

The most common example is livestock kept primarily for Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA production (as well as for other purposes). Growing a green manure crop serves a similar purpose. Growing and lopping the leaves from leguminous trees for paddy fertilizer is still common in Java. Such activities need not be elaborate: in Bali and Sri Lanka the most common 'resource-generating' activity is simply growing a clump of bamboo in the house-yard (for construction material, produce containers, fences, water pipes).

The first, typically a high-yielding improved variety, might be deficient in taste and storability but will generate cash. The second might be capable of long storage and possess other qualities valuable in rural but not in sophisticated urban markets.

With Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA crops - especially tree crops - the 'by-products' may take on such relative importance in the range of their uses as to make unclear just what the 'main' crop is.

A common example is provided by farm boundary medplus roadside fences.

In the Matale district of Sri Lanka most of the fences consist of kapok trees planted at very close spacing. They also support pepper vines and thus yield four 'products': kapok floss and seed (for oil) and black pepper, as well as field security. Farm fences in the Yogyakarta-Boyolali area of Central Java are used to generate a wider range of resources (or to directly produce a marketable commodity).

The cassava stems are then used also as a bean trellis. The list suggests the high level of self-sufficiency that characterizes these farm-system types, especially in isolated areas. In this latter situation such farms are also a subtype of subsistence farms (Type 1), but differ from the main body of near-subsistence farms in that only one main production activity is pursued. A sub-classification of Type 3 farms is shown in Figure 2.

Some examples of these Type 3 farm subtypes are noted below. Probably the most important are the Subtype B near-continuous paddy farms of the wet tropics. The development of such profit-oriented peri-urban farm activities is a reflection of economic growth with its demands for intensively produced products with a high income elasticity of demand.

Yet other bases for specialization are historical accident (e. The characteristics which set them apart from farms of Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA 1, 2 and 3 are their high degree of activity specialization and the lack of real decision-making power possessed by the farm family.

The specialization characteristic may be based on 3601 same factors noted above Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA Type 3 (independent specialized) farms.

The dependence characteristic arises Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA the fact that on Type 4 farms the family is not free to decide what to produce, nor frequently the conditions under which some obligatory activity is to be carried on. This lack of independence can be due to several factors, viz. The tenant-operated vegetable farms of Qatar are an example. Small tenant-operated farms supplying sugarcane to a mill or leaf to a tobacco-processing factory are common examples of such vertically integrated farms.

Not only is the crop which is to be grown specified, but the conditions of production - timing of planting and harvesting, amounts of fertilizers to be used, spraying programs etc. These advances are usually made in the form of a loan at attractive terms, but often the only way farmers can liquidate this loan (and perhaps eventually regain their independence) is to continue Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA produce the particular commodity - usually under conditions set by and to the relative advantage of the lender.

A second kind of debt, that entered into for consumption rather than production purposes, can also provide the Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA for farmer dependence.

The only hope these farmers have of liquidating such debt - usually used for food, clothing and household items - is to continue to grow this specialist crop and sell it at whatever terms may be offered by the traders.

Typically each hectare of land, owned by individuals of the village, might be under sugar for one year during which time it is farmed by the company as part of a larger estate. It then reverts to its owner for three years during which period he or she will operate it as a complete and independent farm, until it is Ondansetron Hydrochloride Injection (Zofran Injection)- FDA taken for sugar.

During this three-year period the farmer has all normal decision-making powers (crop selection and how each is grown). During the one-year cane phase, for which the farmer receives payment as a 'landlord', he or she has no decision-making power whatsoever.

This system thus involves the alternating of two distinctly different farming systems (as shown diagrammatically in Figure 3. For example, most of the small cassava farms of Perak in West Malaysia are located on poor soils which would grow little else except cassava (many are located on tailings or spoil from tin mines). This accounts for their specialization. There is little practical possibility of seeking higher prices by transporting Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA raw cassava further afield.

Similar situations face the citronella grass and cinnamon leaf farmers of the Galle-Matara caring johnson in southern Sri Lanka. Dependence on commercial inputs is even greater on farms of Subtype A, e.

System boundaries: The boundaries of the specialized farms also vary with subtype. Those of the commercially-oriented farms of Subtype A will interface more to the outside world (i. Type 5: Large commercial family farms Type 5 farms are similar in most respects to estates except that usually the primary beneficiaries are members of an (often extended) family rather than absentee owners or shareholders.

They fall into two subtypes. The first consists of mono-crop farms which are at the fringe of the estate sector proper and which are usually dependent on this estate sector for research, availability of new Granisetron Extended-release Injection (Sustol)- FDA varieties and often for processing and marketing facilities.

The 10- to 20-hectare coconut farms of Sri Lanka which exist side-by-side with the large (now nationalized) coconut estates are examples.



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