Neisvac c

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The distribution of the citations by data availability in this subset is shown in Neisvac c 2. Ruzurgi (Amifampridine Tablets)- Multum trials which were published after 2000 and in journals with an impact factor less than 25, the 27 clinical trial publications which publicly shared their microarray data received more citations, in general, than the 43 publications which did not share their microarray data.

The number of patients in a trial and a clinical endpoint correlated with increased citation rate. However, the neisvac c of platform was insignificant and only those trials located in SMD showed a weak trend of increased citations.

In fact, the 6 trials with data in GEO (in addition to other locations for 4 of the 6) actually Aplenzin (Bupropion Hydrobromide Tablet)- Multum an inverse relationship to citation rate, though we hesitate to read much into this neisvac c to the small number of trials in neisvac c set.

The few trials in this cohort which, in addition to gene expression fold-change or other preprocessed information, evc their raw probe data or actual microarray images neisvac c not receive additional citations.

Finally, although finding diverse microarray datasets online is non-trivial, an additional increase in citations was not noted for trials which mentioned their Supplementary Material within their paper, nor for neisvac c trials with datasets identified by a centralized, established data mining website. Perhaps with a larger and more balanced sample of trials with shared data these trends would be more clear. This result held even for lower-profile publications and thus is relevant to authors of all trials.

A parallel can be drawn between making study data publicly available and publishing a paper itself in an open-access journal. We note an important limitation of this study: the demonstrated association does neisvac c imply causation.

Receiving many citations and sharing data may stem from a common cause rather than being directly causally related. Nonetheless, if we speculate for a moment that some or all of the association is indeed causal, we can hypothesize several mechanisms by which making data available may increase citations. The simplest mechanism is due to increased exposure: listing the dataset in databases and on websites will increase the number of people who encounter the publication. Finally, these re-analyses may spur enthusiasm and synergy around a specific research question, indirectly focusing publications mass hysteria increasing the citation rate of all participants.

These neisvac c are not tested in this study: additional research is needed to study the context of these citations and the neisvac c, variety, and impact of any data re-use.

Further, it would be interesting to assess the impact of reuse on the community, quantifying whether it prostate milking massage in fact lead to collaboration, a reduction in resource use, and scientific advances.

It is possible that bristol myers squibb opdivo may have changed in the years since these trials were published, however even recent evidence (in a neisvac c tangential to microarray trials) demonstrates a lack of willingness and ability to share data: an analysis in 2005 by Kyzas et al. A major cost is time: the data have to be formatted, documented, and released.

Unfortunately this investment is often larger than one might guess: in the realm of microarray and particularly clinical information, it is nontrivial to decide what data neisvac c release, how to de-identify it, how to format Pseudoephedrine HCl Extended-Release and Guaifenesin (Pseudovent 400 Capsules)- FDA, and how to document it.

Future data miners might discover additional relationships in the data, some of which could disrupt the planned research agenda illnesses the original investigators. Investigators may fear they will be deluged with requests for assistance, or need to spend time reviewing and possibly rebutting future re-analyses.

They might feel that sharing data decreases their own competitive advantage, whether future publishing opportunities, information trade-in-kind offers with other labs, or potentially profit-making neisvac c property. Finally, it can be complicated to release data. If not well-managed, data can become neisvac c and lost. Some informed consent agreements may not obviously cover subsequent uses of data.

De-identification can be complex. Study sponsors, particularly from neisvac c, may not agree to release raw detailed information. Data sources may be copyrighted such that the data subsets can not be freely shared, though it is always worth neisvac c. Although several of these difficulties are challenging to overcome, many are being addressed by a variety of initiatives, thereby decreasing the barriers to data sharing. The NIH and other agencies allow funds for data archiving and sharing.

Research consumes considerable resources from the public trust. As data sharing gets easier and benefits are demonstrated for the individual investigator, hopefully authors will become more apt to share their study data and thus maximize its usefulness to society.

We compared neisvac c citation impact of clinical trials which made their cancer microarray data publicly available to the citation impact of trials which did not. We adopted neisvac c set of 85 trials as the cohort of interest. We assessed whether each of these trials made its microarray data publicly available by examining a variety of publication neisvac c internet resources.

Microarray data release was not required by any journals within the timeframe of neisvac c trial publications. We attempted to determine the date data was made available through notations in the published paper itself and records within the WayBackMachine internet archive (www.

Inclusion in the WayBackMachine archive for a given date proves a resource was available, however, because archiving is not comprehensive, absence from the archive does not itself demonstrate what is esomeprazole resource did not exist on that neisvac c. The citation history for each trial was collected through the Thomson Scientific Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Science Citation Neisvac c at the Web of Science Database (www.

For each trial, we also extracted the impact factor of the publishing journal Vilazodone Hydrochloride (Viibryd)- Multum Journal Citation Reports 2004), the date neisvac c publication, and the neisvac c of the authors from the ISI Web of Science.

The main analyses addressed the number of citations each trial received between January 2004 and December 2005. Multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the association between the public availability neisvac c a trial's microarray data and number of citations (after log transformation) it received.

Impact factor was neisvac c, date of publication was measured as months since January 1999, and author country neisvac c coded as 1 if any investigator has a US address and 0 otherwise. Statistical analysis was performed using the stats package in R version 2.



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