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For example, the agricultural sector of the island nation Kiribati is equivalent to not much more than a single good-sized coconut estate with a few supplementary Phentermine Capsules (Ionamin)- Multum added.

This sector (a system of Order Level 16) could easily and probably most effectively be analysed, of Lumacaftor and Ivacaftor Film-coated Tablets for Oral Administration (Orkambi)- FDA with the necessary modifications, as if it were a system of Order Level 10 or 12.

The industry could justifiably be analysed as a single large 'farm system' even though in fact (and in respect of banana-growing activities) it really consists of many farm-household systems. Obviously, since this type of higher-than-farm-level analysis will be concerned with a range of subject matter in addition to farm economics - processing, marketing, transport, research, extension etc. Another condition is that the analysis could not be better performed by a systems analyst working within the conceptual framework of some other discipline.

In this type of supporting role, farm management can operate in any or successively all of Modes 2, 3 and 4, i. Phentermine Capsules (Ionamin)- Multum, any 'prescription' that is offered will be of a limited kind and fall short of being a plan for the overall project or program.

Analysis will be directed towards the achievement of some global optimum which is not defined in terms of farm management itself. This type of analysis is in Mode 2 (Section 2. Field D consists of farm management in the role of generating data for the guidance or support of agricultural policy making. Field D analysis is also of a supportive kind and operates in Modes 2 and 3 (quantitative description and diagnosis as outlined in Section 2. The aim is usually to generate knowledge about farm-households or their component subsystems Phentermine Capsules (Ionamin)- Multum is to be used by governments, public agencies etc.

These policies might imply either enhancing farmer welfare or reducing it (e. This is a very important and wide-ranging field: it is difficult to Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Suspension (Bactrim Pediatric)- FDA of any policy which is to affect farmers which should not be based at least in part on farm-level analysis, despite the fact that such farm-level analysis is in fact frequently not carried out, much to Phentermine Capsules (Ionamin)- Multum detriment of sound policy making.

Mode 1 encompasses routine operational and control activities. This may be thought of as practical or 'muddy-boots' farm management. Management in this mode is largely outside the scope of the present discussion, except that the systems concepts discussed here will, it is hoped, provide principles to guide practical (i.

Mode 2 refers to descriptive activities whereby farm management provides a conceptual framework for the study, understanding and description of farm systems or farm-related problems.

Mode 3 refers to diagnostic activities concerned with the identification of problems and weaknesses in farm-level systems of all Order Levels 1 Phentermine Capsules (Ionamin)- Multum 10 and those parts of Order Level 11 household systems relating to the farm.

Such problem diagnosis includes the identification Phentermine Capsules (Ionamin)- Multum potential opportunities. Phentermine Capsules (Ionamin)- Multum diagnosis is usually carried out as a separate mode, but on some commercial farms it might be built into their routine monitoring and management mechanisms (as also on more sophisticated estates). Mode 4 refers to prescriptive activities in which farm management is aimed at the prescription of action plans for both (a) the overcoming of problems or weaknesses and (b) the seizing of opportunities uncovered in Mode 3 (diagnostic) analysis.

Thus farm planning, as discussed Phentermine Capsules (Ionamin)- Multum Chapters 8, 9, 10 and 11, is a prescriptive (Mode 4) activity based on the descriptive (Mode 2) and diagnostic (Mode 3) activity of farm evaluation as discussed in Chapter 7. Analytical situations within modes In Modes 3 and 4, three analytical situations will arise, viz.

If the problem falls within the competence of the investigator, the analysis would at this point go into prescriptive Mode 4 to develop and offer solutions. In such situations the role of the farm Phentermine Capsules (Ionamin)- Multum is - or should be - to refer the problem to some relevant data nuclear or specialist, i.

Inevitably such an approach leads to a plethora of farm types. A different approach is taken here. Emphasis is on farm-system structure from Phentermine Capsules (Ionamin)- Multum farm management and farm-household perspective with classification based on: (1) the main purpose of the farm, (2) its degree of independence and (3) its 'size'. From such a structural viewpoint there are basically six major types of farm system to be found in Asia and elsewhere around the developing world with dozens of subtypes constituting a continuum of farm types between the extremes of a totally subsistence to a totally commercial orientation.

Small subsistence-oriented family farms. Small semi-subsistence or part-commercial family farms, usually of one half to two hectares, but area is not a good criterion: the same basic structure can be found on much larger 20- to 30-hectare farms as in the Punjab, Sind, and North West Frontier Provinces of Pakistan.

Small independent specialized family farms. Small dependent specialized family farms, often with the family as tenants. Large commercial family farms, usually specialized and operated along modified estate lines. Commercial estates, usually mono-crop and with hired management and absentee ownership. Each of the six farm Alomide (Lodoxamide Tromethamine)- FDA is now discussed in turn.

Type 1: Small subsistence-oriented family farms There are two main subtypes. First, and of lesser Phentermine Capsules (Ionamin)- Multum importance, are those based on only one or two crops or livestock types (e. Some farms of this subtype are based more on exploitation or management of a local natural resource - in the extreme case, by use of shifting cultivation or by nomadism - than on deliberate choice of their main farm enterprise (e.

However, the main group of Asian subsistence-oriented farms is based on a Phentermine Capsules (Ionamin)- Multum range of crops and animal types. This second subtype is of Phentermine Capsules (Ionamin)- Multum more highly mixed than are Type 2 part-commercial farms. Farms which are completely self-sufficient are rare, but self-sufficiency remains the operating objective and, if forced by circumstances, farms of this type could exist in isolation from the outside world.

The structure of a Type 1 farm is exemplified in Figure 2. The focus for evaluation and analysis of Type 1 farms is the household rather than the farm component of the system. Phentermine Capsules (Ionamin)- Multum, Type 1 farms have most of the characteristics of Type 2 farms and these are discussed below in relation to this latter type.

Type 2: Small semi-subsistence or part-commercial family farms This type is predominant throughout South and South East Asia in terms of the number of such units, the large number of people supported by them and the total volume of their production - especially of basic foodstuffs.

Such cash is obtained primarily by sale of commodities which are surplus to family requirements, and secondarily - where this is possible - by production and Rifamycin Delayed-release Tablets (Aemcolo)- Multum of some cash crop raised specifically for this purpose.

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