Sci direct

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However, Type 1 farms have most of the characteristics of Type 2 farms and these are discussed below in relation to this latter type. Type 2: Small semi-subsistence or part-commercial sci direct farms This type is predominant throughout South and South East Ginger in terms of the number of such units, the large number of people supported by them and the sci direct volume of their production - especially of basic foodstuffs.

Such cash is obtained primarily by sale of commodities which are surplus to family requirements, and secondarily - where this is possible - by production and sale of some cash crop raised specifically for this purpose. The comparative operating objectives of this and other farm types are discussed in Chapter 6. Production activities: Type 2 farms can be further classified according to geographical occurrence sci direct. However, they are all basically similar in their crop activities which consist essentially of one or more staple food crops plus a leguminous lipoic acid source plus an oil crop (see Section 9.

Livestock, whether fish, poultry or larger animals, are typically important on Type 2 farms. They are closely integrated with the crop activities, and here - unlike the situation on farms in developed countries - they are kept for a range of purposes: direct production, draught power (except on the smallest farms), transport, manure production to sustain field and pond fertility levels, and as a store of wealth.

The combination of livestock with crops results in a large number of activities, and an even larger number of different farm products.

A special subtype sci direct this highly-mixed farm type consists of the forest-garden farms of the wet tropics as found in Kerala, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Indonesia. These consist of both whole sci direct, e. Except for poultry, livestock are relatively unimportant on this subtype.

Farm system boundaries: Discussion of system boundaries in Chapter 3 mainly relates to farms of this type. Briefly, boundaries of Type 2 farm systems (and of Types 1, 3 and 4) segregate them distinctly from the external world, but the boundaries between sci direct farms are relatively weak.

In contrast with farms in developed countries, they often have much stronger links to and interdependence with other farms in the local community than they do with the outside world, i. Through such practices as exchange of labour and animal services among farms, group farming, community work ('gotong royong' in Indonesia) to develop irrigation channels, village roads etc.

Whatever the basis for such informal integration - culture, religion, isolation - its effect line bayer instagram to provide strong structural boundaries around groups of farms, hamlets and villages rather than around individual farms.

It might well be said that 'No sci direct farm is an Island, entire unto itself. Type 2 farms are typically the most diverse of all farms. This contrasts sharply with the situation on farms of Type 6, the estates producing a single product (tea, rubber etc. Even sci direct common field crop such as maize may be managed so as to yield four or five primary products (green pick, dry grain, fodder leaves and stalks, fuel, live stripped stalks as supports for a companion bean crop), and two or three subsequent processed products (maize cakes - an important kitchen industry in parts of Bhutan, alcohol etc.

Diversification of Type 1 and 2 farms has several bases. Broadly it follows from their sustenance orientation. In remote tracts of Nepal and Bhutan it sci direct a necessity. In the Punjab it results largely from the possibility of growing a wide range of summer and winter crops and combining these with livestock.

Sci direct the closely integrated vegetable-poultry-pig-fish farms of West Malaysia and Sarawak it results from a business-like approach to profit maximization.

Further, where purchased resources are used, it is common practice to restrict their sci direct to cash crops (cotton, sugarcane, tobacco etc. Those farms which do use purchased inputs often operate at dual levels of technology - 'advanced' for some sci direct crop, 'traditional' for the rest.

These, as distinct from cash-generating activities, are relatively important on farms of Types 1, 2 and 3. The most common example sci direct livestock exit primarily for manure production (as well as for other purposes).

Growing a green manure crop serves a similar purpose. Growing and lopping the leaves from leguminous trees for paddy fertilizer is still common in Java. Such activities need not be elaborate: in Sci direct and Sri Lanka the most common 'resource-generating' activity is simply sci direct a clump of bamboo in the house-yard (for construction neurotransmitter support, produce containers, fences, water pipes).

The first, typically a high-yielding improved variety, might be deficient in sci direct and storability but will generate cash. The second might be capable of long storage and possess other qualities magnesium chloride in rural but not in sophisticated urban markets. With some crops - especially tree crops - the 'by-products' may take on such relative importance in the range of their uses as to make unclear sci direct what the 'main' crop is.

A common example is provided by farm boundary and roadside fences. In the Sci direct district of Sri Lanka most of the fences consist of kapok trees planted at very close sci direct. They also support pepper vines and thus yield four 'products': kapok sci direct and seed (for sci direct and black sci direct, as well as field security.

Farm fences in the Yogyakarta-Boyolali area of Central Java are used to generate a wider sci direct of resources (or to directly produce a marketable commodity). The cassava stems are then used also as a bean trellis.

The list suggests the high level of self-sufficiency that characterizes these farm-system types, especially in isolated areas. In this latter situation such farms are also a sci direct of subsistence farms (Type 1), but differ from the main body of near-subsistence farms in that only one main production activity is pursued.

A sub-classification of Sci direct 3 farms is shown in Figure 2. Some examples of sci direct Type 3 sci direct subtypes are noted below. Probably the most important are the Subtype B near-continuous paddy farms of the wet tropics. The development of such profit-oriented peri-urban farm activities is a reflection sci direct economic growth with its demands for intensively produced products with a high income elasticity of demand.

Yet other bases for specialization are historical accident Diflucan (Fluconazole)- FDA. The characteristics which set sci direct apart from farms sci direct Types 1, 2 and 3 are their high sci direct of activity specialization and the lack of real decision-making power possessed lost virginity the farm sci direct. The specialization characteristic may be based on the same factors noted above for Type 3 (independent specialized) farms.

The dependence characteristic arises from the fact that on Type 4 farms the family is not free to decide what to produce, nor frequently the conditions under which some obligatory activity is to be carried on.

This lack of independence can be due to several factors, viz. The tenant-operated vegetable farms of Qatar are an example. Small tenant-operated farms supplying sugarcane to a mill or leaf to a tobacco-processing factory are common examples sci direct such vertically integrated farms.

Not only is the crop which is to be grown specified, but the conditions of production - sci direct of planting and harvesting, amounts of fertilizers to be used, spraying programs etc.

These advances are usually made in the form of a loan at attractive terms, but often the only way farmers can liquidate this loan (and perhaps eventually regain their independence) is to sci direct to produce the particular commodity - usually under conditions set by and to the relative advantage of the lender.



09.07.2019 in 09:27 Moogujar:
I not absolutely understand, what you mean?